|Federation of the six towns
31st March 1910 saw the federation of the
six towns to form the County Borough of Stoke-on-Trent
contents: Index page for Federation
Definitions associated with federation
Definitions associated with local government and federation
Under the Municipal Reform Act 1835, municipal borough corporations consisted of councillors and aldermen. Aldermen would be elected not by the electorate, but by the council (including the outgoing aldermen), for a term of six years, which allowed a party that narrowly lost an election to retain control by choosing aldermen.
A borough is an administrative division and a term used in many countries. Generally the term borough indicates a self-governing township. Often, a borough is a single town with its own local government.
The word 'borough' derives
from a common Indo-European language cognate, meaning fort.
A councillor is a member of
a local government council.
A mayor (from the Latin
māior, meaning "greater") is a used for the highest ranking officer in a
The Elementary Education Act 1870 set the framework for schooling of all children over the age of 5 and under 13 in England and Wales. A purpose of the Act was a perceived need for Britain to remain competitive in the world by being at the forefront of manufacture and improvement.
School boards were created in boroughs and parishes under the Act. Education was still not free. Members of the school board were directly elected, not appointed by borough councils or parishes. Each board had certain powers, among them was the ability to raise funds from a rate, build and run schools, subsidise church schools, pay the fees of the poorest children.
Attendance at school was not nationally compulsory (until 1880) and each local board could if they deemed it necessary, create a by-law making attendance compulsory between ages 5-13
School boards were abolished by the Education Act 1902, which replaced them with Local Education Authorities (LEA's).