the face of Arnold Bennett watches over a family
wending their way to the workhouse
from a mural in the Potteries Shopping Centre
"The Bastille was on the
top of a hill about a couple of miles long, and the journey thither was
much lengthened by the desire of the family to avoid the main road. They
were all intensely ashamed; Darius was ashamed to tears, and did not know
why; even his little sister wept and had to be carried, not because she
was shoeless and had had nothing to eat, but because she was going to the
Ba-ba-bastille; she had no notion what the place was. It proved to be the
largest building that Darius had ever seen; and indeed it was the largest
in the district; they stood against its steep sides like flies against a
kennel. Then there was rattling of key-bunches, and the rasping voices of
sour officials, who did not inquire if they would like a meal after their
stroll. And they were put into a cellar and stripped and washed and
dressed in other people's clothes, and then separated, amid tears. And
Darius was pitched into a large crowd of other boys, all clothed like
himself. He now understood the reason for shame; it was because he could
have no distinctive clothes of his own, because he had somehow lost his
identity. All the boys had a sullen, furtive glance, and when they spoke
it was in whispers."
The poor house that
Bennett based his emotive writings on, was in fact the poor house of
Chell. Chell is a suburb of Tunstall on the easterly road to the ancient
settlement of Moorland Biddulph. It was to this place that the truly poor
of the district would be incarcerated in the mid 1800's.
The Union Workhouse or the
Bastille in Bennett's novel "Clayhanger" would strike fear into the
hearts of the people of the area. The residents of Tunstall would hurry
past its door, not daring to look up or breath the air around the building
for fear that they would catch the extreme poverty which seemed to afflict
some families, like the nameless horror of an unspeakable disease. The
horrors that awaited the poor residents of the Bastille so
graphically captured by Bennett.
low room where the boys were assembled there fell a silence, and Darius
heard someone whisper that the celebrated boy who had run away and been
caught would be flogged before supper. Down the long room ran a long
table. Some one brought in three candles in tin candlesticks and set
them near the end of this table. Then somebody else brought in a picked
birch-rod, dripping with salt water from which it had been taken, and
also a small square table. Then came some officers, and a clergyman, and
then, surpassing the rest in majesty, the governor of the Bastille, a
terrible man. The governor made a speech about the crime of running away
from the Bastille, and when he had spoken for a fair time, the clergyman
talked in the same sense; and then a captured tiger, dressed like a boy,
with darting fierce eyes, was dragged in by two men, and laid face down
on the square table, and four boys were commanded to step forward and
hold tightly the four members of this tiger. And, his clothes having
previously been removed as far as his waist, his breeches were next
pulled down his legs. Then the rod was raised and it descended swishing,
and blood began to flow; but far more startling than the blood were the
shrill screams of the tiger; they were so loud and deafening that the
spectators could safely converse under their shelter. The screaming grew
feebler, then ceased; then the blows ceased, and the unconscious infant
(cured of being a tiger) was carried away leaving a trail of red drops
along the floor."
A print of Chell
Workhouse, circa 1839.
Exploring the Potteries
In the Workhouse this ration was only
137oz (approx.) of food per inmate per week (about half of that allowed to
The staples were bread, cheese, gruel
(thin oatmeal), soup, potatoes, and very rarely meat and bacon. Food was
also stripped of everything that might have been attractive to inmates.
Especially salt. And in the early workhouses of the 1830s inmates had not
even been allowed cutlery.
Rowley, a half-famished looking lad of about 15 years of age, was
charged with neglecting his work as an apprentice to Mr. Ridgway, of
Shelton. It was shown that the lad was not sufficiently fed by a brother
with whom he lived, who had a large family, which circumstance led a
brother-in-law to obtain him a situation on the railway, where he could
earn 12s per week, and provide for himself. He was discharged on
promising to return to his master, and Mr. Ridgway kindly promised to
assist in bettering his
and the prospect of poverty were the biggest problems which working families
had to face"
(M. Anderson, Family Structure.. p.166-7)
people of the same sex, height and build may receive the same wage but one is
above subsistence level and the other isn't because they do different jobs,
one which requires a great deal of physical effort, and therefore more food,
while the other works as a clerk.
becomes impossible to tie down with exactness what constitutes the amount of
food needed to keep body and soul together. Poverty doesn't just involve food,
but clothing and shelter as well.
And then there is the environment to consider. Compare a farm labourer and a
potter living in the same sized house and earning the same money; one
environment is poorer than the other, and highly likely to cause illness and
families could save to meet temporary losses in income, so that even short or
comparatively minor crises could cause destitution. Gradually working people
tried to protect their position through savings clubs, friendly societies,
burial clubs and so on in an age when public welfare was limited and provided
through the poor law.
the mid 19th C wages in the pottery industry were considered to be
very good compared with other industries, despite fluctuations in trade.
example: in the 1860's 90% of adult men in the pottery industry earned 20
shillings per week; in the cotton industry only 50% of men earned that amount.
In the coal and iron industry wages were lower.
could earn 9-10 shillings per week, plus overtime. Boys began at 2s to 3s 6d
at 13-14 years old and girls earned 1s a week aged 10-13 years.
Anderson (Family Structure) used the following figures, calculated by Rowntree
about 1900 as a rough guide to the mid 19th C:
of subsistence for an adult: 7s per week
Cost of additional adult: 3s 8d
Cost of additional child: 2s 10d
can be seen that the margin is narrow. All the figures are approximations
because of fluctuations in trade and overtime and also the particular
combination of circumstances of each family.