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Pigot & Co's 1828/9 Directory of Staffordshire

page 722



The opulent and interesting district of this county, designated THE POTTERIES, extending about ten miles in length and one mile and a half in breath, is situated in the hundred of Pirehill north, in a part of the county abounding with coal, and clays of great variety, in colours and textures, combining with the great canal intercourse kept up with all parts of the kingdom, to render this district, above all others, the most fitting for the seat of this grand species of ingenious manufacture.

BURSLEM, an ancient town, with a market held for a long period by custom, and subsequently sanctioned by an act of parliament, is about three miles from Newcastle and two from Hanley, entitled to the precedence of other towns in this district, as claiming to be the mother, as it is the metropolis, of the Staffordshire Potteries. In the Doomsday book it is noticed, and spelt therein Barker Deslem. 
It stands on a rising ground, contains several streets and squares, and extensive and admirably arranged manufactories; is well paved and lighted with gas, under the provisions of an act of parliament, also dictating its police and municipal government, which is vested in a chief constable, chosen annually by the police commissioners. W. Sneyd Esq. is lord of the manor, and hold manorial courts occasionally; and the magistrates hold petty sessions monthly. 
The market house is a neat and modern structure of brick, situated near the centre of the town; and the town hall is in the Market-place : one part of the building is used as the public office, where the town and parish business is transacted; over this is a large and elegant news-room, exceedingly well supplied with the daily London and provincial papers. 
The church, dedicated to St. John, is a large modern brick edifice, with an ancient stone tower; the benefice is a rectory, in the patronage of William Adams, Esq. of Cobridge, and the incumbency of the Rev. Edward Whieldon, whose curates are the Rev. Samuel Jones and the Rev. John Buxton Marsden. Another church is the building at Dale hall; and in the parish of Burslem are no fewer than ten meeting houses for dissenters, and a Roman catholic chapel; all these places of worship have Sunday-schools attached; the one adjoining the Wesleyan chapel has been established forty years, and upwards of 1,500 children are instructed under that establishment. Here are besides, a national, catholic day and Sunday-schools, and a free grammar school for a small number of boys. 
Burslem is the place where the first clod of that great national undertaking the Trent and Mersey canal, was cut, by the late Josiah Wedgwood, Esq. When the 50th anniversary of this memorable event was celebrated, which was a public dinner, various ancient specimens of earthenware were exhibited, descriptive of the progressive state of the manufacture during the last one hundred and fifty years, which were divided into epochs of fifty years, from the butter pot, mentioned by Dr. Plott, down to the time at which the excellent specimens of Queen's, or cream-coloured ware, jasper, &c, left by the late Mr. Wedgwood, were produced.
The market days are Monday and Saturday; and the fairs are, the Saturdays before Shrovetide, Easter and Whitsuntide, Saturday on or after June 24th, Saturday before Ember week and December 26th. 
The parish of Burslem including the township of HULTON ABBEY contained, in 1821, 10,176 inhabitants.

HANLEY, a large modern town and chapelry, in the parish of Stoke, is about two miles east by north of Newcastle, and ranks next to Burslem in size, extent and opulence. The town is in an elevated situation, and the streets forming which are irregular, but many of the houses are well built.
The church, or rather chapel of ease to Stoke, is a  handsome structure of brick, erected in 1788, with a square tower one hundred feet in height, containing a fine set of bells. The dissenters of several denominations have eight places of worship here; and the British and national schools, well supported by voluntary contributions.
A mechanics institute is established here; and near the town is and excellent institution, called the 'North Staffordshire Infirmary.' 
Bagnall, Esq. of London, is lord of the manor, and holds a court baron once a year; the King, as Duke of Lancaster, holds also a court baron once in the same period; and a court is held once a fortnight, for the recovery of debts under forty shillings.
The turnpike road from Newcastle to Leek passes near the town, and the Grand Trunk canal close to it, affording great facility of inland navigation, for the conveyance of earthenware to Liverpool, Hull, London, &c. The exportation is of such an extent, that a company is established for the sole purpose of carrying that article.
In 1812, owing to the increase of the population of the town, it was deemed necessary to apply to the legislature to empower certain trustees to enlarge the market and market-place, and an act for 'establishing and regulating the market' and for enlarging and improving the market-place' at Hanley was obtained; the act mentions two market days, viz. Wednesday and Saturday, but the latter is the principal; it is abundantly supplied with provisions of all kinds, and well attended by purchasers.
In 1819 a new market-hall was erected; a bell is rung at ten o'clock at night, at which time all must begin to prepare for their departure.
The chapelry contained, in 1821, 5,622 inhabitants.

LANE END, a populous and thriving market-town, and with LONGTON, forms an extensive township, situated five miles south-east of Newcastle,, at the southern extremity of the Potteries, and has risen in a few years by the almost magical influence of a prosperous manufacture to a respectable degree of opulence.
The church is similar to that of Hanley, but does not appear to so much advantage, being in a comparatively low situation; it was rebuilt about the year 1795, and is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of trustees. The original chapel was principally built and endowed at the charge of the late J. Bourne, Esq. and was consecrated in 1764; it is a chapel of ease to Stoke. There are also places of worship for the Methodists and other dissenters, and one catholic chapel. An English charity school adjoins the church-yard, which, according to and inscription, was built and endowed in 1760, of which Mr. Bourne is said to have been the founder. Here is also a national school and mechanics' institute. From the great increase of the population here, the commissioners for building churches have considered this place eligible for the erection of a new one, and the ground is taken for that purpose.  
The canal from Manchester and Liverpool to London passes within two miles of this town, and a small rivulet runs through it, upon which are several flint mills. 
The market-days are Wednesday and Saturday, the latter is the principle, and is well supplied with provisions of all kinds. The fairs are February 14th, May 29th, July 22nd and November 1st, for woollen cloth, hardware and pedlary.
By the parliamentary returns for 1821, the township of Lane End and Longton contained 7,100 inhabitants, but a census taken by the Rev. Mr. Temple, in 1826, the population had increased to 8,500 persons.
LOWER LANE and LANE DELPH may be considered as suburbs to Lane End, possessing nothing remarkably distinct from that place.